The Art of Doing Twice the Work in Half the Time
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Jeff Sutherland’s Perspective
Jeff Sutherland is a graduate of the US Military Academy with an engineering degree. He attributes his systematic way of thinking to his time working as a Vietnam fighter pilot. After working in the military for 11 years, Jeff became a doctor at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. The University of Colorado is where he first became interested in IT systems development. He would eventually become a biometrics expert, an early innovator in ATM technology, and Vice President of Engineering or CTO at 11 different technology companies. Jeff attributes this success to following the foundations of Scrum.
Scrum was groundbreaking when Jeff Sutherland introduced it as a way to improve human progress. Some describe the publication of Scrum in 2014 as being a pivotal moment in human history. Its name is borrowed from the game of rugby to emphasize the importance of intense teamwork. It is a strategy integrated into most of the world’s top technology companies. We know it works, but this book outlines why it works. The book explores multiple real world scenarios to explain how people struggle to conduct tasks with agility and efficiency. The author claims that Scrum strategies can solve this dilemma. Scrum orientation is found at the roots of many modern achievements. Jeff’s system helped bring the FBI into the 21st century, for example. Scrum has also helped to reduce poverty in the developing world. This book is built upon insights Jeff gained from martial arts, judicial decision-making, advanced aerial combat, and robotics.
StoryShot #1: ATMs Were the Inspiration for Scrum
Sutherland first identified society’s flawed approach to productivity while he was helping to deploy ATMs throughout the US. He believed the traditional method of conducting software development, including the “waterfall” system associated with ATMs, was deficient. Sutherland also detested society’s overuse of Gantt Charts that illustrate the schedule and status of piece parts of a project. He once stumbled across a Japanese paper, published in 1986, titled, “The New New Product Development Game.” This paper was written by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, who focused on the importance of cross-functional teams in producing a faster and more flexible working environment.
StoryShot #2: The Scrum Fundamentals
These are the takeaway messages, inspired by Takeuchi and Nonaka’s paper, that formed the fundamentals of Scrum:
- Hesitation is Death – Do not hesitate for long. Instead, follow this series of actions: observe, orient, decide, and act. You need to know where you and your team currently are. Assess your options, make a decision, and then act on that decision.
- Look Outward for Answers – The most adaptive systems are those that learn from the surrounding environment. They observe the best features of other systems and apply them to their own.
- Teams Must Be Structured Correctly – For an organization to excel, its teams must be cross-functional, autonomous, and empowered.
- Don’t Just Guess – Rather than guessing whether something will work, just do it. Plan what you want to do and then act. Check to see whether this action produced the desired outcome and then change your future decisions accordingly. Repeating this step in regular cycles will help you and your team achieve continuous improvement.
- Shu Ha Ri – This Chinese mantra stands for “obey, detach and separate.” We must first obey the rules and norms that have worked already. Once these are mastered, you can start to innovate. Finally, in a heightened state of mastery, you can discard the initial rules and make unique decisions.
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StoryShot #3: Sprint Cycles Are Crucial For Improving Efficiency
As humans, we struggle to focus. This struggle to focus is why Sutherland is an advocate of the Sprint Cycle. Sprint Cycles are operating when work features are built as quickly as possible over a chosen period. Sprints are often called time boxes. These time boxes each have a set duration and should be kept consistently so that you can develop a work rhythm. During this time, you aim to move as many tasks as possible from Backlog to Doing. Your Backlog is an accumulation of the tasks or work assignments that are currently unfinished. You should focus specifically on the tasks that can be marked “Done” by the end of this period.
During the Sprint Cycle, Sutherland suggests you ask yourself the following three questions:
- What did you do yesterday to help the team finish the sprint?
- What will you do today to help the team finish the sprint?
- What obstacles are getting in the team’s way?
StoryShot #4: Map Your Information and Time
Sutherland encourages teams to map information and communication flows. Mapping helps your team spot bottlenecks and areas where information flow bogs down. Another way to maximize the team’s productivity is to make sure that meetings are held consistently and purposefully. Jeff recommends that meetings be held daily or weekly, but for a maximum duration of 15 minutes. As a team, you need to make sure that this time involves providing the most actionable and valuable information. So, everybody on the team must participate actively in some way.
Here are some main points Scrum embodies on the topic of time:
- Time is finite, and it should be treated that way. To make the most of your time, you should make your work time-based. Break your work down into regular, set, short periods. These Sprint Cycles should range between one and four weeks.
- The end of your Sprint Cycle should bring some deliverables to show for it.
- Communication is vital for making good use of time. Communication saturation accelerates work.
- One meeting a day should be the limit. Include a time during the day when you check to determine what can be done to increase the speed of the workflow and just do it.
StoryShot #5: Blindly Following Plans Is Stupid
One of the most common ways people seek to increase their productivity is through planning. Jeff accepts that planning can be effective in some circumstances but that blindly following plans is stupid. Overplanning is one of the most significant faults in society. Organizations often try to plan out an entire project by drawing up complicated and confusing charts that include every sub-task. However, when detailed plans meet reality, they often fall apart. Detailed plans are too rigid and prevent us from adapting to changes in the relevant environment along the way. So Jeff encourages us to learn to expect change. This expectation will inspire discoveries and new ideas.
Within this storyshot, Jeff provides some clear tips on how to challenge our broken working world:
- Inspect and Adapt – Do not let yourself fall into autopilot mode without evaluation. Occasionally stop the work that you are doing and review what you have done. Consider whether the approach you are taking is still working. Consider whether you could have done better.
- Change or Die – Clinging to the old ways of doing things is a sure-fire way to fail. You have to be willing to change, or your competitors will change before you do and leave you behind, mired in your old, unproductive ways.
- Fail Fast so You Can Fix Early – There is a tendency for organizations to invest too much of their energy into procedures and meetings. It is often better to create visible value that can be inspected at short intervals. If you are doing any work that is not producing real value, then you should stop. If the product you are creating needs amending, then this adjustment should be made early on.
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StoryShot #6: Success Is Built on Team Efficiency
Scrum works when the teams within an organization operate efficiently. Sutherland argues that team efficiency has a much more significant impact than individual efficiency. Too many people and too many resources will make a team less efficient. For a team, you want a minimum of three people. Generally, seven people is the ideal number for a team. A team of greater than nine will tend to degrade the team’s efficiency.
The following bullet points summarize how Sutherland characterizes a team that has the fundamentals required for excellence:
- Agreement on a higher purpose than any individual’s goals
- Autonomy, whereby each team has the power to make decisions without needing permission from others
- Cross-functionality in which the team contains every skill required to complete a project
- No finger-pointing or blame. People are not to blame for bad outcomes; it is bad systems that are to blame.
StoryShot #7: Multitasking Makes You Stupid
One of the practices frequently encouraged in organizations is multitasking. Sutherland believes it is better to do one thing exclusively and then move on to another project. He thinks that doing more than one thing at a time slows you down and degrades your performance at both tasks. So, work on only one thing at a time and do things right the first time. If you make an error, you should fix these errors or bugs as soon as you notice them. Waiting to fix something later on could reduce efficiency.
StoryShot #8: There Are Three Kinds of Waste
In this book, Sutherland describes three kinds of waste: Muri, Mura, and Muda. Muri is associated with waste through unreasonableness. Mura is associated with waste through inconsistency. Finally, Muda is associated with waste through suboptimal outcomes.
StoryShot #9: Working Too Hard Causes Mistakes
Working long hours produces waste. Working more hours doesn’t result in getting more done; less gets done. Although working hard is vital for success, working too hard is what makes people fatigued. Fatigue leads to mistakes. Work weekdays and work reasonable hours. Take vacations to prevent burnout. This also ties into Jeff’s point that heroic effort should not be regarded as a good thing. Instead, Jeff views heroic effort as a failure in planning.
Additionally, the goals that you create must be ones that you can achieve—establishing goals that are challenging and attainable can motivate you. Impossible goals will simply leave you unhappy and will lower your motivation.
StoryShot #10: True Happiness Is in The Process
Sutherland describes happiness as a significant factor in predicting outcomes. Happiness can be applied to both individuals and teams and is defined as a combination of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
True happiness is found in the process, not in the result. Often organizations will reward achievements. We should instead be rewarding those who are striving for greatness. It is the role of the Scrum Master to keep teams from developing complacency. The Scrum Master is the person in charge of the team. Pride is often associated with rewards based on results. Instead, reward your team members when they are doing the right things to propel them towards greatness.
Here are some of the reasons Jeff Sutherland believes that happiness makes your team perform better:
- Happiness helps you make smarter decisions
- Happiness enables you to be more creative
- Happiness means individuals are less likely to leave their job
- If you can quantify your happiness, you can see how it improves your performance. Happiness is a future-looking metric, while all other metrics are backward-looking
One aspect of team happiness that Jeff included was the idea of complete transparency within the organization. No secrets should be kept. For example, everybody should know each other’s salaries and finances. Hiding things from each other only serves those who are looking to help themselves.
We also shouldn’t let our happiness take us over completely by leading us to believe that we are performing better than we are. So, we should always measure our happiness against performance.
StoryShot #11: How to Prioritize
What you prioritize as an organization should be determined from asking yourself the following questions:
- Will it have a significant impact?
- Will it be relevant to our customers?
- Will it make money?
- Will it be the easiest option to implement?
To decide which task to do first, you must create a list of everything that could be done on a project. Then put the items with the highest value and lowest risk at the top of your Backlog. Finally, fill out the rest of your list by applying this same formula to the remaining tasks. Making people prioritize by value forces them to produce the most important work first.
Concerning revenue, Sutherland recommends identifying 20% of the input that yields 80% of the output. As a team, you need to work out where the most value can be delivered from the least effort. This is called the Minimum Viable Product (MVP) and is associated with Rapid Prototyping, which means getting a product to market as quickly as possible.
To rapidly prototype in a non-tech setting, you need to test your product but get it out to end-user customers as quickly as possible. Then, receive feedback from your end-users and iterate accordingly.
StoryShot #12: Scrum Can Influence Any Sector
Scrum accelerates every human endeavor. It can be applied to everything. This storyshot provides examples of how Scrum is already doing precisely that. Here are two examples that are far removed from the corporate world:
- Scrum is being used by many Dutch high schools. They observed an immediate improvement in test scores of more than 10%.
- Scrum is being used in Uganda by the Grameen Foundation to tackle poverty. Scrum is being used to deliver agricultural and market data to poor rural farmers. Since the introduction of Scrum, farmers have witnessed double their yield and double the revenue.
StoryShot #13: Never Plan Fantasy
Sutherland encourages planning only those things that need to be done. So, we should never be projecting everything out years in advance. All we need to do is plan enough to keep our teams busy and working efficiently.
Additionally, a common planning mistake is to plan in absolute terms or increments like hours. Planning this way is too rigid and does not account for varying factors that can impact the length of time tasks will consume. Use something more flexible like T-shirt sizes to describe how large a task is.
When planning, try to think about the work as a story (a realistic one, of course). So, think about who will be gaining value from a task. Then, think about what the value is. Finally, consider why they need this value.
Know your team’s production velocity. Every team should know how much work they can get done in a Sprint Cycle. They should also know how much they can improve this velocity through working smarter.
You can set goals for your team that might have seemed audacious before adopting a Scrum mindset (such as doubling your production).
StoryShot #14: How to Improve Efficiency
Finally, Jeff encourages practices that make working easier and trouble-free. Scrum is about enabling the most flow possible. So, we should remove any policies that stunt the team’s efficiency. If possible, remove any unnecessary forms, meetings, approvals, or standards. These things only get in the way of being a productive team. Further, don’t allow any behaviors that cause emotional chaos or diminish others on the team.
StoryShot #15: Product Owners Are Essential
The product owner decides what the work should be. They decide what is on the backlog and in what order the backlog items are completed. Jeff describes product owners as being fantastic product marketers. The product owner does not have to understand the technical side of the product. Instead, they need to understand the product from a customer’s point of view. The product owner should be constantly thinking about what the customer using the product needs. They should put themselves in the mindset of people who are getting value from your product. Jeff explains that the scrum master and product owner have to be held to different standards. The scrum master and the team are responsible for how fast things are being done. The product owner is responsible for turning productivity into value.
Jeff summarizes the role of the product owner using four characteristics:
- The scrum master is the how, while the product owner is the what. The latter should spend half their time talking to the customers. The product owner needs to know the market well enough to understand what will make a difference.
- The product owner should be empowered. They should be allowed to decide the product’s vision without management blocking decisions.
- The product owner must be reliable, consistent, and available. A key to the team’s success is a constant dialog between the team and the product owner. Therefore, choose a product owner who will have the time to be available to the team. This rules out CEOs and other senior executives.
- The product owner needs to be accountable for value. Jeff measures a product owner’s performance by how much revenue they deliver per point of effort. Therefore, suppose the team is producing forty points of work weekly. In that case, Jeff would like to measure how much revenue is created for each of the 40 different points.
Final Summary and Review of Scrum
As Sutherland describes it, Scrum is “The Art of Doing Twice the Work in Half the Time.” By ditching rigid micromanaging plans and institutional bureaucracy, teams work far more efficiently, and that’s been demonstrated globally in business, government, and education. This book contains tons of actionable insights involving Scrum fundamentals, sprint cycles, smart planning and prioritizing, avoiding distraction, burnout and waste, effective leadership and most of all, productive teamwork.
StoryShots Rating: We rate this book 4.4 out of 5.
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This content was first published in 2020.
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